A new phrase is entering into Australia’s foreign policy lexicon. Just what a “whole-of-nation” approach to foreign policy entails, how it can be implemented, and the challenges it poses is the subject of a new paper that was released by the foreign minister last week.
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Australia is no longer competitive in the nickel market, largely due to Indonesia’s recent domination in the sector. This domination strategy has been carefully planned by Indonesia as it looks to boost its downstream industrial policy in critical minerals processing with the backing of Chinese investments.
India's diplomatic, economic, and cultural engagements with Africa have grown substantially in the last three decades, though the drivers of the country's Africa policy have remained the same. African support will be needed to fuel India's economy and consolidate its position as a leading power in the Global South.