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India, The United States, Australia and the Difficult Birth of Bangladesh

Published 22 Oct 2019

Ric Smith has masterfully woven archival material, memories of his own time as a foreign service officer, and conversations with other officers of the then Department of Foreign Affairs to recount the crisis in East Pakistan in 1971 and the difficult birth of Bangladesh.

Smith highlights the Cold War incongruities of the crisis, including the Soviet Union’s support for democratic India’s position during the crisis, while the United States supported the military regime in Pakistan. The episode also stands as an example of Canberra diverging from Washington on an issue that was garnering political and media attention in Australia. Australia was able to pursue a policy toward the region that was independent from the United States, accepting early that East Pakistan was “finished” and that there was a need to address an unfolding humanitarian crisis.

Smith’s book imparts important lessons about diplomacy for Australia: It is not only possible for Australia’s politicians and diplomats to take independent positions on major international problems, but they are sometimes respected by their allies when they do so.

A PDF version is available for download;

Ric Smith – India, The Unites States, Australia And The Difficult Birth Of Bangladesh

For a hardcopy of this publication, please contact the AIIA National Office on (02) 6282 2133 or email

natasha.eloise@internationalaffairs.org.au.